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pope innocent viii and medici

His second son, Giovanni, who became Pope Leo X, retook the city in 1512 with the aid of a Spanish army. Lorenzo de' Medici (Italian pronunciation: [loˈrɛntso de ˈmɛːditʃi], 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492)[1] was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy. Giovanni (1475–1521) became Pope Leo X. Luisa (or Luigia; 1477–1488), was betrothed to Giovanni il Popolano, but died young. 13. [citation needed] The marriage in person took place in Florence on 4 June 1469. PRE-PAPAL BACKGROUND . Cibo arbeitete um 1460 für Kardinal Filippo Calandrini. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull known as Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer’s investigations against magicians and witches: “It has recently come to our ears, not without great pain to us, that in some parts of upper Germany, […] insisted on entering Florence with his intimidating army. But Alexander VI was a Borgia before he was a pope, so his turn in the cassock was always going to be debauched. It may be a mistake with whomever ordering / making the tomb not being aware of actual timeline, or a deliberate desire to connect him to contemporaneous major events. Nepotism described as "lavish as it was shameless." Janet Ross. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave.. Death. Rodrigo had already tried and failed to become Pope as the other cardinals did not want. When his brother Piero de’ Medici (1471–1503) was expelled from Florence in 1494, Giovanni also went into exile, which he spent mainly in Città di Castello, Perugia, Urbino and Milan; in 1499 he travelled to Germany, the Netherlands and France. Apart from a personal interest, Lorenzo also used the Florentine milieu of fine arts for his diplomatic efforts. Basilica of Santa Maria in Domnica. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. However, despite Medici help, the new pope tells Lorenzo that he cannot repay loans to the Medici banks since has to pay his soldiers. That success enabled Lorenzo to secure constitutional changes within the government of the Florentine Republic that further enhanced his own power. She was much-loved. From 1489 to 1491 he studied theology and canon law at Pisa. Learn more about Politics and The Prince with Course Hero's 1475-d. 1521) was made Cardinal at the age of fourteen. The Medici may be credited with, among other feats, financing and fostering the great flourishing of the arts, humanities, an… Contessina (1478–1515) married Piero Ridolfi. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave. Innocent VIII is not so innocent. Maddalena (1473–1519), married Franceschetto Cybo, illegitimate son of Pope Innocent VIII. VIII entered the city of Florence, surrounded by an unimagineably large and scary, However, when Charles VIII dismounted from his massive black war horse at the end of. In season, he hunted at Castello della … Pope Innocent VIII (1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Alum had been discovered by local citizens of Volterra, who turned to Florence to get backing to exploit this important natural resource. [21] Shockingly, Salviati acted with the blessing of his patron Pope Sixtus IV. [9] With his brother Giuliano, he participated in jousting, hawking, hunting, and horse breeding for the Palio, a horse race in Siena. In 1492 he was made a cardinal by Pope Innocent VIII. 1477 (25th December) The aim was to use the gold of the New World to fund Crusades and to gain souls for Christianity. Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici (1472–1503), called "the Unfortunate", was ruler of Florence after his father's death Maria Maddalena Romola de' Medici (1473–1528) married Franceschetto Cybo (illegitimate son of Pope Innocent VIII) on 25 February 1487 and had seven children But, in 1492, he is elected Pope Alexander VI. In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici , who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X . Pope Innocent VIII (Giovanni Battista Cibò) Born at Genoa, 1432; elected 29 August, 1484; died at Rome, 25 July, 1492. in Rome, and two of her weddings were held inside the Vatican. appetite, and was particularly interested in children. Lorenzo was an artist and wrote poetry in his native Tuscan. Charles VIII neverthelss. Clemens VII. "Florentine Palaces & Their Stories". Following the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. [6], Lorenzo, considered the most promising of the five children of Piero and Lucrezia, was tutored by a diplomat and bishop, Gentile de' Becchi, and the humanist philosopher Marsilio Ficino,[8] and he was trained in Greek by John Argyropoulos. He built a palace for his mistress, and openly enjoyed her charms. Italy. In a fairly unimpressive papacy, the elderly pope became the first pontiff to publicly announce that he fathered illegitimate children. Continue Reading. She was a daughter of Giacomo Orsini, Lord of Monterotondo and Bracciano by his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini. As for pope Innocent VIII and his inscription, I can offer no real explanation, but I also don't think it needs much. Lorenzo de' Medici appears as a supporting character to the protagonist. [36] Savonarola visited Lorenzo on his deathbed. When the Pope was absent from Rome, Lucrezia acted as his fill-in. 1474 wurde Santa Cecilia in Trastevere seine Titelkirche. [17], Lorenzo, like his grandfather, father, and son, ruled Florence indirectly through surrogates in the city councils by means of payoffs and strategic marriages. Lorenzo played a role in bringing Savonarola to Florence. [18], Thereafter, Lorenzo, like his grandfather Cosimo de' Medici, pursued a policy of maintaining peace, balancing power between the northern Italian states and keeping major European states such as France and the Holy Roman Empire out of Italy. Michelangelo lived with Lorenzo and his family for three years, dining at the family table and participating in discussions led by Marsilio Ficino. The Signoria and councils of Florence issued a decree: Whereas the foremost man of all this city, the lately deceased Lorenzo de' Medici, did, during his whole life, neglect no opportunity of protecting, increasing, adorning and raising this city, but was always ready with counsel, authority and painstaking, in thought and deed; shrank from neither trouble nor danger for the good of the state and its freedom..... it has seemed good to the Senate and people of Florence.... to establish a public testimonial of gratitude to the memory of such a man, in order that virtue might not be unhonoured among Florentines, and that, in days to come, other citizens may be incited to serve the commonwealth with might and wisdom. Pope Leo X. [24], Lorenzo rallied the citizens. [20], On Sunday, 26 April 1478, in an incident known as the Pazzi conspiracy, a group headed by Girolamo Riario, Francesco de' Pazzi, and Francesco Salviati (the archbishop of Pisa), attacked Lorenzo and his brother and co-ruler Giuliano in the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in an attempt to seize control of the Florentine government. Lorenzo sent mercenaries to suppress the revolt by force, and the mercenaries ultimately sacked the city. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. For these reasons, Lorenzo was the subject of the Pazzi conspiracy (1478), in which his brother Giuliano was assassinated. [35], Lorenzo died during the late night of 8 April 1492, at the longtime family villa of Careggi. FREE study guides and infographics! Rome. When Innocent VIII died in 1492, so did the despised Cybo’s protection. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family of Florence, Giovanni was the second son of Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of the Florentine Republic, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. With Daniel Sharman, Francesco Montanari, Alessandra Mastronardi, Johnny Harris. Married elder son Franceschetto Cybo to the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his 13-year-old son Giovanni, who became Pope Leo X. This was the beginning of what is called, “The Calamity of Italy”, An army of 30,000 soldiers marched across the Alps, facing no opposition through, Florence. Renaissance Papacy has such a horrid reputation for corruption. [18][19] Rival Florentine families inevitably harboured resentments over the Medicis' dominance, and enemies of the Medici remained a factor in Florentine life long after Lorenzo's passing. Pope Innocent VIII : biography 1432 – 25 July 1492 In Rome he built for summer use the Belvedere of the Vatican, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace, which his successor would turn into the Cortile del Belvedere. Try our expert-verified textbook solutions with step-by-step explanations. [6] Lorenzo's father, Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, was equally at the centre of Florentine civic life, chiefly as an art patron and collector, while Lorenzo's uncle, Giovanni di Cosimo de' Medici, took care of the family's business interests. [12][13], Piero sent Lorenzo on many important diplomatic missions when he was still a youth, including trips to Rome to meet the pope and other important religious and political figures. When Piero de Medici asked. Find answers and explanations to over 1.2 million textbook exercises. He is buried in the Medici Chapel in Florence. His complexion was dark, and although his face was not handsome it was so full of dignity as to compel respect. . The same year, 1493. As one of the wealthiest men in Europe, Cosimo spent a very large portion of his fortune on government and philanthropy, for example as a patron of the arts and financier of public works. Lorenzo's ally turned adversary friar tries to bring the truth to Florentine people, a dark fact that will most likely destroy the support Lorenzo always had in his friends and his own wife Clarice, leading to an unforeseen tragedy. This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 13:32. The protracted conflict with Naples was the principal obstacle to a crusade against the Turks; Innocent VIII earnestly endeavoured to unite Christendom against the common enemy. HIST255 - Week 8 Lecture (2) - Pope Leo X, Rome, Castiglione, Cellini & the Sack.docx, Hist 255(7)The State-Florence,Milan,Venice-Lecture-Outline.doc, New York City College of Technology, CUNY, Eberhardt_[orig]_Cath_Hist_vol-2_searchable.pdf, INTI International College Subang • HISTORY HIS109S, New York City College of Technology, CUNY • HISTORY 102, University of California, Los Angeles • ITALIAN 42A, University of California, Los Angeles • COM SCI 118. After Riaro was murdered in 1488 by supporters of the new pope, Innocent VIII, she acted as regent for her oldest son Ottaviano, who was not yet of age. However, with little support from the traditional Medici allies in Bologna and Milan,[20] the war dragged on, and only diplomacy by Lorenzo, who personally traveled to Naples and became a prisoner of the king for several months, ultimately resolved the crisis. “Behold, t is the Lord God that is leading all these armies”. Prelude [edit | edit source]. The Medici is a series about the well-known Florentine family with the same name during the early Renaissance period. During what is known as the Little Ice Age , the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation resulted in an increasing fear of witches. Mai 1478 in Florenz; 25. The tympanum has the coat of arms of Pope Innocent VIII (center) and of the cardinals Giovanni and Ferdinando de Medici. Pope Innocent VIII. He was the son of the Roman senator, Aran Cibò, and Teodorina de' Mari. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. [14], Lorenzo was described as rather plain of appearance and of average height, having a broad frame and short legs, dark hair and eyes, a squashed nose, short-sighted eyes and a harsh voice. -The death of Pope Innocent VIII and Lorenzo de Medici mean that the balance of power was being thrown out of whack in Italy. He was the couple’s fourth surviving child, Lucrezia had been born in 1470, Piero in 1472 and Maddelena in 1473. Some days previously, as the story goes, a Jewish physician had infused the blood of three ten-year-old boys, who all died soon afterwards as a result of this. His father prevailed on his relative Innocent VIII to name him cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica on 8 March 1489 when he was age 13. although he was not allowed to wear the insignia or share in the deliberations of the college until three years later. Cardinal Giovanni Cibo lived a worldly life before the curia elected him Innocent VIII in 1484. Although Lorenzo did not commission many works himself, he helped these artists to secure commissions from other patrons. In 1492 he was made a cardinal by Pope Innocent VIII. This preview shows page 2 - 4 out of 6 pages. That night, Piero fled the city. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. Continue Reading. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1484 to his death. a Spaniard Pope. The Pope died on 25 July 1492. Bayezid II. The accepted version is that Columbus was dispatched in 1492 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, but Signor Marino said that the venture was originally financed by Innocent VIII and the Medici banking dynasty to which the Pope was related. Lorenzo's grandfather, Cosimo de' Medici, was the first member of the Medici family to lead the Republic of Florence and run the Medici Bank simultaneously. 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